However, the National Biosafety Authority (NBA,) which the bill indicated will be the implementer of the law, is yet to be inaugurated by the president.
Before Ghana’s Biosafety Law come into force, a lot has been done at the national level to complement the protocol, since it was enforced on 29 December, 1993. While awaiting the passing of the Biosafety Law, a Legislative Instrument 1887 was passed on 30 November 2007 to allow for laboratory research in modern biotechnology.
The introduction of policies, legislations and regulations for biotechnology/biosafety is to enhance the implementation of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. Although there are no genetically modified (GM) crops in the country, Ghanaians are gradually becoming aware of genetically modified crops through the print and electronic media despite a lot of both positive and negative information about genetically modified crops.
Just after Ghana having the law, a lot has taken place to introduce biosafety crops in the country. The National Biosafety Committee (NBC) has engaged stakeholders notably regulatory agencies, academia, researchers, farmers, civil society and policy makers in awareness creation fora and training workshops about biosafety.
Research Institutions and academia as well as the regulatory agencies have made significant improvements in physical facilities paving the way for relevant research in modern biotechnology in Ghana.
Through the West African Agricultural Productivity Project (WAAPP,) the World Bank is funding the construction of a Regional Centre of Specialization at the Crops Research Institute at Fumesua, it is believe to be a Centre of Excellence for modern biotechnology. The Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana also has a mobile molecular biology laboratory which is facilitating the research in all parts of the country.
In terms of human resource capacity building, the Food and Drugs Authority (FDA) has created a biosafety unit with experts trained in biosafety. Some of the tertiary institutions have also been churning out graduates in Molecular Biology and Biotechnology.
The Department of Biochemistry of the University of Ghana has been renamed the Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology to reflect the modern biotechnology courses being taught. The West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI) on the main campus of the University of Ghana at Legon has been offering graduate courses in molecular genetics, plant virology and plant genetics as well as plant and tissue culture biology.
In general, more and more Ghanaian scientists have been specialising in advanced molecular biology and biotechnology. Several scientists have also participated in the Stewardship training under the “Strengthening Capacity in the Safe Management of Agricultural Biotechnology in sub-Saharan Africa Project” (SABIMA).
Ghanaians are involved in research in biotechnology including molecular characterisation and diversity studies of crops, molecular marker assisted breeding, molecular (DNA) diagnosis of crop viral diseases and tissue culture.
Although some Ghanaians have the expertise for genetic transformations, the country does not have the requisite infrastructure. Several capacity building workshops in biotechnology, biosafety, review of applications, conduct of confined field trials, monitoring of field trials, environmental and food safety assessments have been conducted for regulators, researchers, academia and the media.
Ghanaians have also benefitted from “seeing is believing” study tours to South Africa, Burkina Faso, Kenya and United States of America where genetically modified crops are under production either commercially or confined field trials.
Biotechnology is a new area in our part of the world and traditionally people have difficulty accepting a new way of doing things when they are used to their old ways and the situation is no different when it comes to biotech.
Despite all these initiatives by Ghanaian authorities, there are some citizens who believe the introduction of GM crops into Ghana will kill and destroy our traditional farming practices. For instance, Friends of the Earth and other Farm Base Organisations (FBOs) have vehemently opposed the introduction of GM crops in Ghana. They have argued that the introduction of GM crops in Ghana will forever destroy our farming lands; farmers will have to struggle for seeds and above all consumers’ health is at stake. But the Director-General of Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. Abdulai B. Salifu, has a different opinion from what those in civil society organisations (CSOs) are saying.
Dr. Salisu said in an interview that food security is very important. ‘The hunger in Africa alone reopens the introduction of GM foods into the continent,’ he added. ‘Some people are of the view that they will need food that will kill them in over 30 years rather than eating what will kill them just two years time,’ he stated. ‘Can someone tell me, whether we have heard that someone has died as a result of eating GM foods in Ghana or any other part of the world?, he asked. Dr. Salisu emphatically said unlike GM crops or food, there is no crop that has gone through a thoroughly and vigorous system before its consumption. The CSIR Director-General told some journalists last month at Aburi that, what is not good for Ghanaians is to take a gene of a human being and place it into tomatoes and to generate food out of that. ‘But there is no harm in taking gene from tomatoes and placing it into another tomatoes, in order to generate a GM tomatoes from that,’ said Dr. Salisu.
A Research Scientist at the Savanna Agriculture Research Institute, Dr. Ibrahim Kwasi Atokple, has claimed that GM foods are safe and have no adverse health implications as widely speculated. Dr. Atokple did not agree with CSOs and emphasised that a number of research has been ongoing since the introduction of GM products onto the market to ascertain whether or not the products have negative health effects but no such case has yet been discovered. “So far, nobody has reported of any side effects,” he said. Hence, he noted that the arguments by these individuals and groups have no basis, and without any scientific evidence. He however admitted that “there may be few allergies, but even with the conventional crops there are allergies. Several tests are going on with evaluation but nothing has been found yet.”
Dr. Atokple spoke recently to the media at a training workshop on Plant Breeding Genetics and Biosciences for Farming in Africa. The workshop, held in Accra, brought together selected journalists from the print and electronic media across the country. According to the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), provisional estimates for 2012 gross domestic product (GDP) showed a growth of 7.1 per cent over the 2011 revised estimates. Agriculture as one of the contributors recorded the lowest growth of 2.6%.
Though the estimates show an improvement in the growth of the agriculture sector compared to 2011 (0.8%), its contribution to the economy continues to decline, with its share reducing from 25.6 per cent of GDP to 23.1%. Crops, however, remains the largest activity in the economy with a share of 19.3 per cent of GDP. Also include cocoa 3.4%, livestock 1.7%, forestry and logging2.1% and fishing 1.5%. ‘With these statistics from GSS, are we saying that GM crops will be preferable more than our traditional crops’?
Nana Konadu is a farmer at Okurase in the Akuapem North District of the Eastern Region of Ghana. He has over 13 hectares of farm land made up of maize, plantain, and cassava. He told this reporter that initially he found it difficult to choose between the normal traditional seeds and GM seeds after the farmers in that community asked him not to use GM seeds.
‘As a farmer I decided to apply the two on maize to see the different. All various farming methods were applied to the two seeds on different lands. To my surprise, I realised the traditional seeds performed well with good yield, far more than the GM seeds. This made the farmers in the community decide not to do anything with GM seeds,’ Konadu pointed out.
How would farmers in Ghana who have for so many years been using traditional seeds and methods to farm be convinced that the GM crops and its seeds are better for them, for that matter they should go for them? Africa Agriculture Technology Foundation (AATF) has said Agriculture is under threat in Africa. According to the Foundation 60%-70% of the African population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. But it has said only 4% of cropped land has access to irrigation. Also, 33% of cropped land is subject to moderate drought, 25% subject to severe drought and climate change is predicted to make things even worse. In Ghana, rice importation is common.
The country imports 60% of rice annually and this is amounted to US$300 million. Statistics from the Irrigation Development Authority (IDA) under Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) indicates that only 0.2% of irrigable lands are in use. According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agric Biotech Applications (ISAAA,) biotech crop hectares increased by an unprecedented 100-fold, from 1.7 million hectares in 1996, to 170 million hectares in 2012, making biotech crops the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history.
ISAAA stated in its brief for Global Status of Commercialised Biotech/GM Crops for 2012 that a record of 170.3 million hectares of biotech crops were grown globally in 2012, at an annual growth rate of 6%, up 10.3 million from 160 million hectares in 2011. 2012 was the 17th year of commercialisation of biotech crops, which is from 1996 to 2012, when growth continued after a remarkable 16 consecutive years of increases. It’s noted that of the 28 countries which planted biotech crops in 2012, 20 were developing and 8 were industrial countries. This compares with 19 developing and 10 industrial in 2011. Thus there are three times as many developing countries growing biotech crops as there are industrial countries.
From ISAAA, global value of biotech seed alone was US$15 billion in 2012. A 2011 study estimated that the cost of discovery, development and authorisation of a new biotech crop/trait is US$135 million. In 2012, the global market value of biotech crops, estimated by Cropnosis, was US$14.84 billion, (up from US$13.35 billion in 2011); this represents 23% of the US$64.62 billion global crop protection market in 2012, and 35% of the US$34 billion commercial seed market. The estimated global farm-gate revenues of the harvested commercial “end product” (the biotech grain and other harvested products) are more than 10 times greater than the value of the biotech seed alone. Africa continued to make progress with South Africa increasing its biotech area by a record 0.6 million hectares to reach 2.9 million hectares; Sudan joined South Africa, Burkina Faso and Egypt, to bring the total number of African biotech countries to four.
In South Africa the hectarage occupied by biotech crops in 2012 continued to increase for the 15th consecutive season, driven mainly by increased hectarage under maize and soybeans. The estimated total biotech crop area in 2012 was 2.9 million hectares, compared with 2.3 million hectares in 2011/2012, an impressive 26% annual increase in area.
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity defines ‘biotechnology’ as: “Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.” In other words, biotechnology can be defined as the mere application of technical advances in life science to develop commercial products. Modern usage of biotech also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.
Biosafety is one of the issues addressed by the Convention. This concept refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. At the same time, modern biotechnology is recognised as having a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, particularly in meeting critical needs for food, agriculture and health care.
In accordance with the precautionary approach contained in Principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the objective of this Protocol is to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health, and specifically focusing on trans-boundary movements.
Feeding 25 million Ghanaians are going for GM crops or we are going to stick to our traditional way of farming?