30,000 South African workers in the coal industry downed their tools
on October 4 over a wage dispute.
This strike was organized by the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM),
a key affiliate of the Congress of South African Trade Unions
(COSATU), which is an ally of the ruling African National Congress
NUM has blamed the mining firm bosses for the failure to reach an
agreement acceptable to their rank-and-file members. The owners
submitted another offer on October 9 after negotiations had broken
down the day before.
According to Peter Bailey, the chief coal negotiator for NUM, “This
morning, when we were supposed to reconvene, there was one outstanding
company which has done nothing and that is Glencore. They are the ones
holding the whole process to ransom.? (Reuters, Oct. 9)
Reuters in the same above-cited article noted in the disagreements
between the workers and the bosses that ?The Chamber of Mines said
last week that coal producers had offered to increase wages by up to
8.5 percent for the lowest paid workers, up from a previous offer of 8
percent. The NUM has rejected both offers. The union had been seeking
a 50 percent rise for its lowest paid workers, who make about 6,000
rand ($445) a month in basic pay, but has since scaled that back to a
demand of 1,000 rand, or an increase of about 17 percent.?
The workers have walked off the jobs at mines run by Glencore, Anglo
American, Exxaro and some smaller producers, which has threatened
supplies of coal to the government-run power utility Eskom. South
Africa, the most industrialized state on the continent, has been
plagued by power shortages. Not only does the economy rely heavily on
coal for its power generation, South Africa is a major exporter to
Europe and Asia.
Mine owners are concerned that a prolonged strike could further drive
down their profits and create even greater economic problems. The
country has experienced negative growth over the last quarter
negatively impacting the value of its currency, the rand, and the
capacity to address the imperatives of job creation, power generation
and housing construction.
South African Business Day Live website noted ?A resolution to the
standoff on a two-year wage agreement would be good news for coal
companies, whose margins are being squeezed by weak global coal
prices, and for SA in general, as it would help to stave off the
possibility of load-shedding. Eskom has said it has enough stockpiles
for its coal-fired power stations to withstand a one-to-two-month
strike but not if the strike lasted longer.? (October 12)
Two other traditionally white-dominated unions in the coal sector,
Solidarity and the United Association of South Africa (UASA), had
accepted the owners offer on September 14. Nonetheless, NUM represents
72 percent of the workers in the coal mines with their membership
being predominantly African.
In a statement issued by Motsamai Motlhamme, the director of
Employment Relations of the Chamber of Mines stressed that “The coal
producers are facing subdued demand and price pressures. The offers we
have made are at the limit of what is affordable. Further strike
action will continue to undermine the sustainability of the industry
The fact that this industrial action is taking place amid an economic
slump in South Africa is a cause for concern for the ruling ANC
government of President Jacob Zuma. With the decline in commodity
prices, South Africa, along with other so-called “emerging economies”
are experiencing similar problems due their continuing dependence on
the generation of foreign exchange through exports of minerals and
Workers Threaten to Strike in Other Sectors
In addition to the coal sector, another rival labor group, the
Association of Miners and Construction Workers (AMCU), is threatening
to strike in the gold mines.
On October 11, AMCU took a strike vote at the Sibanye facilities
although leaders claim that they will not walk out until negotiating
possibilities have been exhausted. AMCU has its largest membership at
Sibanye yet none of the unions at the mine have an outright majority.
?Today all the members of AMCU have agreed overwhelmingly that we are
prepared to go on a protected strike in pursuit of the living wage at
AngloGold Ashanti, Harmony Gold Mining and Sibanye Gold,? the
president Joseph Mathunjwa told media outlets in the aftermath of a
rally outside Johannesburg on October 11.
He failed however to announce a deadline noting ?You need to prepare
for a strike.?
Mathunjwa surmised that an immediate strike would seriously divide the
work force saying ?If we would strike now, we would be divided.
Because others will complain that if it?s December, they have to go
home. Others will say they have to budget to pay for their children?s
school uniform.? (Independent Online, Oct. 12)
NUM, Solidarity and the United Association of South Africa (UASA)
signed a three-year pay agreement with AngloGold Ashanti and Harmony
on October 2. Nonetheless, AMCU was issued a certificate of
nonresolution by the Council for Conciliation, Mediation and
Mine owners intend to take legal action against AMCU if they proceed
with a strike in an attempt to have any work stoppage declared as
unprotected. The lack of a majority representation by AMCU will be the
basis for the bosses to win an injunction aimed at forcing their
members back to work.
Gold output has fallen 39 percent from a June 2011 high, and the
largest firms in South Africa, whose mines? are the deepest and among
the oldest globally, say they are losing money on about 35 percent of
production at current price levels.
Platinum Production Declines in Troubled Sector
Also the production of platinum, with South Africa being the world’s
largest source, has been down overall during the course of the year
after rebounding in the troubled sector where strikes have been
prevalent since 2012.
In 2014, the longest strike in the history of the mining industry was
led by AMCU resulting in the decline in production and consequently
contributing to the slowing of growth inside the country. An impasse
in the negotiations would take five months to resolve the strike.
It was in the platinum sector that the Marikana strike took place in
August 2012 leading to the deaths of over 45 union organizers and
workers who were killed in internecine conflicts between supporters of
NUM and AMCU, as well as the Northwest provincial police massacre of
miners on August 16 of that year, which resulted in the killings of 34
miners and the injuring of many others.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) recently released its forecast
for growth in South Africa saying that there was the potential for a
1.4 percent increase in 2015, revising its previous prediction of 2.0
percent. IMF officials also warned that in 2016, there would be a
growth rate of 1.3 percent, revising an earlier forecast of 2.1
In a World Bank report examining the potential for economic growth in
South Africa and throughout the continent as a whole also scaled-back
growth figures for 2015 and 2016. For South Africa, the World Bank
predicted a growth rate for 2015 at 1.5 percent and 1.7 percent for
the following year.
In Africa south of the Sahara, the World Bank is saying that growth
rates will be at their lowest point since 2009. Rates for sub-Saharan
Africa were forecast to decline from 4.6 percent in 2014 to 3.7
percent for 2015.
The report issued by the World Bank is attributing the sluggish growth
to economic problems in China, Africa?s largest trading partner, and
also to lower commodity prices, along with electricity supply
shortages. Predictions of slower growth indicate that Africa would be
the only developing region to fall below the United Nations global
poverty reduction goals.
By Abayomi Azikiwe
Editor, Pan-African News Wire