TERRORISM: An offshoot of Religion or Politics?

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From generation to generation, Religion has always been one of the strongest moral avenues by which humankind imbibes virtues of Peace and Love. Despite the fact that %90 of the entire human world claims to subscribe to these grand virtues of Religion, it is so unfortunate the global community is politically marred by ordeals of coercion, invasion, repression and suppression with attendant effects of resistance, revenge and insurrection. The rampant quandaries historically occasioned by cross-national violence make “Peace” a rare value scarcely enjoyed in the world. As man wishes to enjoy physical, physiological and psychological Peace uninterruptedly, ironically, his antics creates convoluted obstacles to attainment of Peace in the global community. The inequalities and inequities that clad the socio-economic and political milieu of man (as a result of his greed and ego) continue to fuel the fire of class antagonisms. Man continues to waste resources treating the symptoms of malady of frequent social violence with defective persecution of another man. Rather than humbly address the cause of this malady via a sincere engagement in Love with other men, he only prefers to engage in opportunistic Love of wanton Diplomatic relations; exclusively for economic purposes. In his most immediate administrative setting, his greed and self-centeredness make him thoughtlessly appropriate for himself resources (collectively generated by millions of men/women) to the detriment of millions of others. The course for general welfare ( the natural basis of governance in terms of effective infrastructural development and human capacity utilization development) is jettisoned and subverted by the desperation to accumulate surplus personal wealth in order to withstand the heat of fierce Class competition with rival powerful men. As those disenchanted by his Malversation engage in protest to register their displeasure with him, he sees no reason to repent or listen to their plight other than using brute force of the state to quash all mass protests. His folly prevents him from seeing reason with the science that healthy society or long term social peace is symptomatic of the usage of collective social resources for committed development of the social offsprings; that is, children and youths. As his folly only makes him consider normal for predicament of illiteracy, poverty and famine to reign in the midst of plenty, the same folly beclouds his mind from foreseeing the eventuality that abandonment and neglect of children and youths (the most vital and vulnerable resources of the human society) could create hopeless and frustrated minds of insidious Brigandage and uncontrollable thuggery detrimental to the survival of the society. Man never ponders on the prospect that failure to show commitment for cultivation and exploration of potentials of these vital human resources could create room for growth of parallel stateless armies of Guerillas, Rebels and Anarchists. Man’s Greed would rather make him manipulate hopeless and helpless minds of these social patients for unfair political and economic interests via getting them engaged in violence-related activities against his rivals.

 

His Ego hardens his mind from repentantly accepting the fact that his failure to engage the volatile minds of children and youths for Healthy and Peaceful society is the fertilizer for growth of deadly Rebel groups around the globe. To practically understand this seeming parable, one only needs to recall how Imperialists (of the then western bloc) funded militant activities of present Al-Qaeda organization (the biggest network of rebels in the world) in the 1980s. Let us recall how the western bloc used to coax late Osama Bin Laden to recruit and arm hopeless/poor Afghan and Pakistani youths for joint fight against Communist Soviet troops’ expansion and aggression in Afghanistan. We know how difficult it is for the western imperialists to deny the fact that they were responsible for multi-million funds (in US dollar) channeled through Pakistani’s inter-services intelligence agency to the Al-Qaeda militants’ fight against the soviet occupation of Afghanistan in a CIA program called operation cyclone. If they want to deny this, why are they yet to convincingly explain to the world why they used to commend Al-Qaeda group as “FREEDOM FIGHTERS” with their viral Media apparatus in the 1980s, and subsequently began to condemn (in secret) the same Al-Qaeda group as “TERRORIST GROUP” since 1993 February 26 bombing of the World Trade Center, 1998 US embassies’ bombings and aggressively condemned them the more so virally with their cunning Media contraptions after the 2001 September 11 complete Bombing of the world trade center by suicide bombers?

When there was Unity of interests (rooted in opportunism to enforce their ideological goals in the eastern bloc against their rival soviet imperialists), the Desert group was their friend. When Clash of interests set in (owing to that which is unknown to the lay one), the Desert group became their foe. Instead of the imperialist predator to bury his Ego and resolve his feud with his foe in secret (as he used to do with him when he used him to achieve his ideological goals in the eastern bloc before dumping him out of his greed) for Global peaceful co-existence, he would rather use his ubiquitous Media apparatus to virally broadcast headline of “ISLAMIC TERRORISM” so as to create impression that Religion is the driving force of incessant Terrorism; thus succeeded in his gimmick of diverting away the urge of the public to ask real questions.

This wind of Malversation does not only blow at the international scale when we objectively trace the origins of incessant terror unleashed by hundreds of national and sub-national Rebel groups across the globe. When we dispassionately trace the remote origin of every rebel group across the globe (from KKK of United states, Black Eagles of South America, I.R.A of United, IAF of Italy to L.R.A of Uganda, Boko Haram/MEND of Nigeria, FLEC of Angola, Tuareg separatists of Mali, Al-Shabbab of East Africa, ULFA of India, Jemah Islamiya of south east Asia and many other deadly ones to many to mention), we would definitely come up with nearly %100 uniform conclusion that these Rebels are frustrated youths (in some case children) evolving from down trodden societal majority. While considerable number of these rebels were former thugs of Corrupt/Callous/Cruel Rogues in corridors of power, recruited, trained and armed to execute evil agenda of suppression and killing of political opponents, dissidents and rival ethnic groups who later grew wings and got out of control of their political masters, many frustrated others are ganged-up anarchists who unleash violence on innocent nationals of oppressive imperialist countries and innocent ethnic brothers/sisters of oppressive political class in revenge and response to oppression and neglect they suffer from Predators of international and national politics.

Instead of the Predator to secularly and repentantly address his greed, he continues to play politics of “Divide and Rule” by diverting away the urge of billions of innocent civilians to ask real questions. He uses his ubiquitous Media apparatus to subjectively and selectively report violent activities of Terrorists. He would rather use his Media power to over-emphasize violent activities of Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram and Al-shabbab while under-emphasizing violent activities of KKK, IRA, LRA and many others to create the impression that Religion is the driving force of Terrorism. He is so fond of making inciting reports that “Islamic North and Christian south” is the basis of current quagmire bedeviling Nigeria, my country. Whereas, while one quarter of population of so viscerally described Islamic north are Christians with almost half of the population of so viscerally described Christian south being Muslims, it would be so shocking to the lay ones of international community to believe that the number of Mosques in Lagos (Nigeria’s major southern state) is roughly at par (if not more than) the number of mosques in Kano (Nigeria’s major northern state). So sad the innocent mind of the down-trodden civilian falls prey to this political antics. Rather than unitedly put the blame of   terrorism at the door steps of predators of international/national politics with simultaneous wage of “security intelligence fight” against the Anarchistic rebels (by putting aside their religious differences), the down-trodden civilian falls prey to the antics of the predator, blaming his/her fellow down-trodden civilian for scourge of terrorism. The down trodden one becomes a slave of Bigotry by not only seeing his/her fellow down-trodden one as enemy, s/he also goes as far as launching reprisal attacks (owing to making so much “importance” out of non-important matter of Religious differences, a natural condition of humans) against him/her as transfer-aggression for any terror suffered from rebels.  As the conservative radical capitalizes on this crisis to gain relevance in the polity by relentlessly calling for disintegration of the country so as to flex political muscles within his/her tribal confines (as reminiscent of Sudan’s successful convocation of sovereign national conference and current Nigerian conservative radicals’ clamour for the same sovereign conference of all ethnic nationalities of Nigeria), the Atheist gains more reasons to deny the existence of God and more reasons to mock the theist’s penchant for religious affiliation. But ultimately, the imperialist becomes emboldened in fanning the embers of Islamophobia so as to succeed in his evil agendum of “Divide and Rule”.

 

ISLAMOPHOBIA: a crossbreed of Imperialism & Media

Going by frequent reports of local and international media, the late twentieth century is arguably an era when “TERRORISM” began to take a dramatic turn in the international politics as vividly construed by collective psychology of the contemporary world. For the lay ones, Terrorism is a phenomenon that assumed prominence, most notably with February 5 1993 partial bombing of the World trade center, September 11 2001 complete bombing of the world trade center (by suicide bombers allegedly sponsored by late Osama Bin Laden, ex-leader of the AL-QAEDA group), JULY 7 2005 London bombing, rampant suicide bombings currently ravaging some places in the Arab world of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Yemen (orchestrated by various factions of the Al-Qaeda group), and the most current spate of Suicide Bombings in some African cities/towns, notably traceable to activities of East African Al-Shabbab group, extended factions of Al-Qaeda in the Sahelian Maghreb of Mauritania/Morroco/Mali and Nigerian sub-national deadly Boko Haram group. So unfortunate this spate of Bombings has created a new wave of discrimination, instigated by the Political Big players of the present world. Rather than allow people to empirically and dispassionately trace the roots of this Rebellious Terrorism to pervasive inequalities and injustice in the political and economic spheres of the global community or objectively allow it to incite a spontaneous Discrimination between Evil people and Good people around the globe irrespective of their religious affiliations, the Discrimination is politically channeled along Religious lines by the convoluted opportunism of the influential Big players, virally spread by their international media machines. The lay one is systematically made to consider “legitimate” at the international level “Imperialists firing of Missiles/bombing” on relatively weak nations, realistically rooted in reasons to gain unfair economic and political advantages. Conversely, the lay one is made to consider “criminal” the attendant military resistance and revenge of a rebellious group against these Imperialist cruelties. Having been brainwashed by the International Media machines, the lay mind does not only dogmatically moralize Imperialist terror on weak nations by commending it as WAR AGAINST TERROR, the lay mind also puts the cart before the horse by condemning as TERRORISM, the resistance/revenge of rebels and freedom fighters. This psycho-social scenario is the etymology of Islamophobia, an evolving Phobia invented by western social psychologists. Islamophobia is a kind of Phobia that evolved in the late 20th century stretching into 21st century out of rampant social perception of Islam as Religion of Terror and Muslims as terrorists. Islamophobia is an irrational fear of Muslims, a strong Hatred for Muslims or abhorrence for anything relating to Islamic religion.

This is born out of the events that the Prime suspects of the 1993 partial Bombing of the World trade center/1998 U.S embassies’ bombings/2001 complete bombing of the World trade center were Muslims. This phobia became prominent the more in the international arena after the London Bombing; when the British Authorities came up with a policy on review of residential status and citizenship status of many British Muslims, majority of who are of Arab origin. Just as this Islamophobic atmosphere creates the pervasive urge for non-muslims to have knowledge of the Quran-the Muslims central Book or to search for “bombs” in the Quran, many enemies of Islam capitalize on this to not only bastardize Islam by quoting out of context the verses of Quran that talks about war (just like the Bible talks about to). All over the world, while muslim men with much beard are not only discriminated against in public places or during recruitment exercise in western nations, they are also subjected to ultra-security search and surveillance at Airports and all transport terminals, muslim women molested for putting veils in adherence to the Islamic admonitions. In fact for this effect of Islamophobia, while some muslims stop identifying themselves as muslims in public places, some muslims change their Islamic names (in replacement with islamicaly neutral names) so as to easily obtain visas to travel to western nations, especially America, Britain, France e.t.c. In reaction to these non-muslims discrimination against muslims, many muslims put themselves in the defensive (rather than raising the real issues and polemics) by describing themselves as normal or moderate muslims, while calling those perpetrating the evils of suicide bombings as extremist muslims. From this unfair classification, the self-acclaimed moderate muslim played to the gallery of the cunning imperialist (the real master-mind of the crisis), thus creating further gut for him (via his Media power) to ridicule the term “Islam”. Rather than come to terms with the natural social fact that there would always be Black sheep (or evil ones) amongst Group of people, the imperialist now leads objective non-muslims people to differentiate between Muslims (so described to be the moderates), and leads gullible non-muslims to fear and hate muslims. However, when we expect the cunning Media machine to balance up reports on Terrorists’ onslaughts all over irrespective of religious inclinations, the media continue to subjectively report rebels’ activities (or at worse link history of Terrorism) with over-emphasization of nefarious activities of some insurgent groups, while de-emphasizing many nefarious activities of some notorious rebel group along, basically based on their religious affiliation. In other words, if the imperialist (with his cunning media contraption) dissipate much propagandist energy to fan embers of Islamophobia just because very few men (who are Black sheep amongst billions of kind-hearted/peaceful muslims all over the globe) commit evil against armless innocent civilians as indirect response to imperialist suppression and invasion of weak nations or directly open fire as violent response to imperialist cruel invasion, we ask the imperialist and his cunning media machine (as my people-Yoruba would always say), why don’t you use the same cain you often use to beat the first wife for discipline of the more notorious second wife?

In other words, if your frequent report on terrorism is clad with personalities who are of Islamic background in order to incite Hated against Islam and Muslims, why do you de-emphasize (in most cases do not report) the deadly terrorist activities of many insurgent groups of Christian background?

At the backdrop of this big question above, we would not only ask the imperialist why he adjusts his media contraption from linking history of Terrorism to history of slavery he masterminded, I will also go further to question his cunning Media contraption why he kept silent from linking the history of Religious terrorism to early modern period of Britain, which saw violent conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches. I presume informed mind should be familiar with this history, especially the failure of the Gunpowder plot to blow up the Palace of Westminster, the English seat of government. An historian, Peter Stenfels characterizes this plot as a notable case of religious terrorism.

In addition, there are many current examples of  violent Rebel groups of Christian religious affiliation asides the one historically recalled above, but apparently de-emphasized by the press.  Take for instance, National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT), a rebel group operating in Tripura, North-East India, has been described as engaging in terrorist violence motivated by their Christian beliefs.[6] It is classified by the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism as one of the ten most active terrorist groups in the world, and has been accused of forcefully converting people to Christianity. The insurgency in Nagaland was originally led by the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), and it is continued today by a faction named “NSCN–Isaac Muivah”, which explicitly calls for a “Nagalim for Christ”. The state government reports that the Baptist Church of Tripura supplies arms and gives financial support to the NLFT. In April 2000, the secretary of the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, Nagmanlal Halam, was arrested with a large quantity of explosives. He confessed to illegally buying and supplying explosives to the NLFT for two years.  The NLFT has threatened to kill Hindus celebrating the annual five-day religious festival of Durga Puja and other religious celebrations.At least 20 Hindus in Tripura have been killed by the NLFT in two years for resisting forced conversion to Christianity.A leader of the Jamatia tribe, Rampada Jamatia, said that armed NLFT militants were forcibly converting tribal villagers to Christianity, which he said was a serious threat to Hinduism.It is believed that up to 5,000 tribal villagers were converted to Christianity by the NLFT in two years.

In August 2000, a tribal Hindu spiritual leader, Shanti Tripura, was shot dead by about ten guerrillas belonging to the NLFT who said it wanted to convert all people in the state to Christianity.In December 2000, Labh Kumar Jamatia, a religious leader of the state’s second largest Hindu group, was kidnapped by the NLFT, and found dead in a forest in Dalak village in southern Tripura. According to police, rebels from the NLFT wanted Jamatia to convert to Christianity, but he refused.A local Marxist tribal leader, Kishore Debbarma, was clubbed to death in Tripura’s Sadar (north) by militants belonging to the Biswamohan faction of the NLFT in May 2005.He was dragged away at gunpoint by a group of NLFT militants. His body was found with multiple head injuries in a roadside ditch in the Katabon area.

In Assam, the Manmasi National Christian Army (MNCA), an extremist group from the Hmar tribe, were charged with forcing Hindus and muslims to convert at gunpoint. Seven or more Hmar youths were charged with visiting Bhuvan Pahar, a Hindu village, armed with guns, and pressuring residents to convert to Christianity.They also desecrated temples by painting crosses on the walls with their blood.The Sonai police, along with the 5th Assam Rifles, arrested 13 members of the MNCA, including their commander-in-chief. Guns and ammunition were seized.

John Joseph, the Christian representative of the National Minority Commission, stated in 2000 that foreign funds used for Christian terrorism in the northeast are routed through Christians in Kerala.

In 2007 a tribal spiritual Hindu monk, Swami Lakshmanananda Saraswati, accused Radhakant Nayak, chief of a local chapter of World Vision, and a former Rajya Sabha member from Orissa in the Indian National Congress party, of plotting to assassinate him. The Swami also said that World Vision was covertly pumping money into India for religious conversion during the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, and criticized the activities of Christian missionaries as going against tribal beliefs.In 2008, he was gunned down along with four disciples on the Hindu festive day of Krishna Janmashtami by a group of 30–40 armed men.Later, Maoist terrorist leader Sabyasachi Panda admitted responsibility for the assassination, saying that the Maoists had intervened in the religious dispute on behalf of Christians and Dalits.The non-governmental organization Justice on Trial disputed that there had been Maoist involvement, and quoted the Swami as claiming that Christian missionaries had earlier attacked him eight times.

Take for instance in Norway, July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik was arrested and charged with terrorism after a car bombing in Oslo and a mass shooting on Utøya island.As a result of his attacks, 151 people were injured, and 77 killed, majority of who were muslims. While the two court-appointed psychiatrists have determined (out of the gimmick to douse inter-religious tension) that Breivik is insane.Hours prior to the events, Breivik released a 1,500 page manifesto detailing that Muslim immigrants were undermining Norway’s traditional Christian values, and identifying himself as a “Christian crusader”. Analyses of his motivations have noted that he did not only display Christian terrorist inclinations, but also had non-religious, right-wing beliefs.Mark Juergensmeyer and John Mark Reynolds have stated that the events were Christian terrorism,whereas Brad Hirschfield has rejected the Christian terrorist label.

In Romania, Orthodox Christian movements in Romania, such as the Iron Guard and Lăncieri, which have been characterized by Yad Vashem and Stanley G. Payne as anti-semitic, anti-Islamic and fascist, respectively, were responsible for involvement in the Bucharest pogrom, and political murders during the 1930s.

In Uganda, the Lord’s Resistance Army, a cult guerrilla army engaged in an armed rebellion against the Ugandan government, has been accused of using child soldiers and committing numerous crimes against humanity; including massacres, abductions, mutilation, torture, rape, and forced child labour as soldiers, porters, and sex slaves.A quasi-religious movement that mixes some aspects of Christian beliefs with its own brand of spiritualism, it is led by Joseph Kony, who proclaims himself the spokesperson of God and a spirit medium, primarily of the “Holy Spirit” which the Acholi believe can represent itself in many manifestations.  LRA fighters wear rosary beads and recite passages from the Bible before battle.

In united states, beginning after the Civil War, members of the Protestant-ledKu Klux Klan organization began engaging in arson, beatings, cross burning, destruction of property, lynching, murder, rape, tar-and-feathering, and whipping against African Americans, muslims, Jews, Catholics, and other social or ethnic minorities.

They were explicitly Christian terrorist in ideology, basing their beliefs on a “religious foundation” in Christianity.The goals of the KKK included, from an early time on, an intent to “reestablish Protestant Christian values in America by any means possible,” and believe that “Jesus was the first Klansman. Their cross-burnings were conducted not only to intimidate targets, but to demonstrate their respect and reverence for Jesus Christ, and the lighting ritual was steeped in Christian symbolism, including the saying of prayers and singing of Christian hymns.Many modern Klan organizations, such as the Knights Party, USA, continue to focus on the Christian supremacist message, asserting that there is a “war” on to destroy “western Christian civilization.”

KU KLUX LAN group with ritual practice of Cross burning

 

During the twentieth century, members of extremist groups such as the Army of God began executing attacks against abortion clinics and doctors across the United States. A number of terrorist attacks were attributed to individuals and groups with ties to the Christian Identity and Christian Patriot movements, including the Lambs of Christ.A group called Concerned Christians were deported from Israel on suspicion of planning to attack holy sites in Jerusalem at the end of 1999, believing that their deaths would “lead them to heaven. The motive for anti-abortionist Scott Roeder murdering Wichita doctor George Tiller on May 31, 2009 was a belief that abortion is criminal and immoral, and that this belief went “hand in hand” with his religious beliefs.The Centennial Olympic Park bombing in 1996, as well as subsequent attacks on an abortion clinic and a lesbian nightclub, were made by Eric Robert Rudolph; Michael Barkun, a professor at Syracuse University, considers Rudolph to likely fit the definition of a Christian terrorist, whereas James A. Aho, a professor at Idaho State University, argues instead that Rudolph was inspired only in part by religious considerations.

There is also Hutaree,  a Christian militia group based in Adrian, Michigan. In 2010, after an FBI agent infiltrated the group, nine of its members were indicted by a federal grand jury in Detroit on charges of seditious conspiracy to use of improvised explosive devices, teaching the use of explosive materials, and possessing a firearm during a crime of violence.On March 28, 2012, the conspiracy charges were dismissed.Terrorism scholar Aref M. Al-Khattar has listed The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord, Defensive Action, The Freemen Community, and some “Christian militia” as groups that “can be placed under the category of far-right-wing terrorism” that “has a religious (Christian) component”.

In Peru, fourteen traditionalist shamans about to form a shamanic school and association were murdered in Peru over a period of several months prior to October 2011. The murders were allegedly committed by, and/or at the behest of, the local mayor and a group of other evangelical Christians. The mayor’s brother was known in the area as a matabrujos or witch killer.The Peruvian government continues to investigate.

In Canada, Christian Identity is a loosely affiliated global group of churches and individuals devoted to a racialized theology that asserts that North European whites are the direct descendants of the lost tribes of Israel. It has been associated with groups such as the Aryan Nations, Aryan Republican Army, Army of God, Phineas Priesthood, and The Covenant, The Sword, and the Arm of the Lord. It has been cited as an influence in a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including the 2002 Soweto bombings.

 

EVALUATION OF ALL FORCES AT PLAY

There are many more of these events of terror carried out by rebels of all religious affiliations, including Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism and many others. Yet, the media keep a treacherous silence on this with a bid to shift Blame from its original base (that is, pervasive cruelties of national and international politics) to Religious base, more specifically Islam. It is not religion that fraternizes or fanaticizes men to commit terror, but rather, it is the material condition or social condition of men that remotely and naturally account for their tendencies to commit terror. While at the beginning extreme, the Governing man commits terror out of thought to command respect from others (via suppression), to expand his dominion over others (via violent oppression), and most importantly, to accumulate economic resources,  at the end extreme, the rebellious man commits terror out of Frustration and transfer aggression, traceable to the rejection, dejection and depression he suffered from the governing man in possession of others’ wealth. Some of the men at the end extreme spiritually goes further in their resistant terror to paint it “white” or rationalize his wickedness by having recourse to Religion, thereby seeking irrational solace in sacred verses of their respective holy books to justify his terror.

Conclusively, the psychological bottom line is that, just as Greed and Ego lead man to wickedness, Frustration either leads to option of debilitating Withdrawal or option of redemptive or slapdash Aggression.

 

REFERENCES

  1. MY INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF TERRORISM
  2. An excerpt from Wikipedia (free encyclopedia) on Christian terrorism
  3. Afghanistan: Skeptics Urge Caution Over Purported Hekmatyar Cease-Fire July 19, 2007
  1. Jean-Pierre Filiu, “Local and global jihad: Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghrib”, The Middle East Journal,Vol.63
  2. “Fighting begins between Kachin and Burmese Armies in Northern Burma”. Kachin News Group. February 7, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  3. AU Peace & Security Council Report, Peace and Security Council, 2006-11-09
  4. Troops die in India Maoist attack, BBC News Online, April 13, 2009
  5.  Kurth Cronin, Audrey; Huda Aden, Adam Frost, and Benjamin Jones (February 6, 2004) (PDF). Foreign Terrorist Organizations. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
  6. http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/countries/india/states/assam/terrorist_outfits/Ulfa.htm^ Sudarsan Raghavan and Sholnn Freeman – U.S. Appears to Take Lead in Fighting in Baghdad – Washington Post.
  7. ^ Bajoria, Jayshree (2008-02-06). “Pakistan’s New Generation of Terrorists”. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
  8. ^ Ticking Time Bombs – msnbc.com
  9. ^ a b Zachary Abuza (December 2003). “Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiyah” (PDF). The National Bureau of Asian Research. Retrieved 2007-01-28.
  10. ^ Powell, Colin (August 9, 2002). “Designation of a Foreign Terrorist Organization”. U.S. State Department. Archived from the original on 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2011-03-03.
  11. ^ “Sudan ‘repulses’ rebel attack”, Al Jazeera, May 11, 2008.
  12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._State_Department_list_of_Foreign_Terrorist_Organizations.
  13. ^ James C. McKinley Jr. (April 1, 1996). “Uganda’s Christian Rebels Revive War in North”. New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-03. 

By kehinde Oduwale

EMAIL: kenneryp@gmail.com

PHONE:+2348028290937

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